In the pattern of other quantized angular momenta , this gives total angular momentum The resulting fine structure which is observed corresponds to two possibilities for the z-component of the angular momentum. This causes an energy splitting because of the magnetic moment of the electron. Two types of experimental evidence which arose in the s suggested an additional property of the electron. One was the closely spaced splitting of the hydrogen spectral lines , called fine structure. The other was the Stern-Gerlach experiment which showed in that a beam of silver atoms directed through an inhomogeneous magnetic field would be forced into two beams. Both of these experimental situations were consistent with the possession of an intrinsic angular momentum and a magnetic moment by individual electrons.
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In the classical world, a charged, spinning object has magnetic properties that are very much like those exhibited by these elementary particles. Physicists love analogies, so they described the elementary particles too in terms of their 'spin. Instead we have learned simply to accept the observed fact that the electron is deflected by magnetic fields. If one insists on the image of a spinning object, then real paradoxes arise; unlike a tossed softball, for instance, the spin of an electron never changes, and it has only two possible orientations.
The song, particularly its original lyrics, has been criticized as racist and reminiscent and glorifying of the slavery period in American history. The original lyrics contained the racial slur "nigger" multiple times. Gonna jump down, spin around Pick a bale of cotton Gonna jump down, spin around Pick a bale a day Oh lordy, pick a bale of cotton Oh lordy, pick a bale a day. Sonny Terry and Brownie McGhee recorded it as a duo.
Unlike planets orbiting the Sun, electrons cannot be at any arbitrary distance from the nucleus; they can exist only in certain specific locations called allowed orbits. This property, first explained by Danish physicist Niels Bohr in , is another result of quantum mechanics—specifically, the requirement that the angular momentum of an electron in orbit, like everything else in the quantum world, come in discrete bundles called quanta. In the Bohr atom electrons can be found only in allowed orbits, and these allowed orbits are at different energies. The orbits are analogous to a set of stairs in which the gravitational potential energy is different for each step and in which a ball can be found on any step but never in between. The laws of quantum mechanics describe the process by which electrons can move from one allowed orbit, or energy level , to another. As with many processes in the quantum world, this process is impossible to visualize.