The Middle Ages or mediaeval period is generally regarded as beginning the time from the collapse of the Western Roman Empire in the 5th century. The end of the middle ages is much harder to define, with a variety of dates of significant events such as the Renaissance , the Protestant Reformation, the Battle of Bosworth Field or the Battle of Lepanto in being used in different places and fields of art and study. Often in British thinking this broader period is divided by the coming of William the Conquerer in , when the Anglo-Saxon age ends.
A birch rod often shortened to "birch" is a bundle of leafless twigs bound together to form an implement for administering corporal punishment. Contrary to what the name suggests, a birch rod is not a single rod and is not necessarily made from birch twigs, but can also be made from various other strong and smooth branches of trees or shrubs, such as willow. Another factor in the severity of a birch rod is its size - i. In some penal institutions, several versions were in use, which were often given names. In the s, the Royal Navy abandoned the use of the cat o' nine tails on boy seamen.
I really loved this woman and not sure what to do. Thought the girl and I had a future, and we did, just not with each other I'll bet there are hundreds of boyfriend converts out there. I also studied his advice for approaching and dating women.